DAlmeida J*, Backthan L**, Rao SV***.
(*Assistant Professor and Consultant Gynaecologist , *** Professor and Head of department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, ** Associate Professor, Department of pathology, Father Muller Medical college hospital,
.) Mangalore, India
Endometriosis ( term coined by Sampson ) is the presence of endometrial glands and stroma outside the uterine cavity and musculature and is a very common gynecological condition. Primary cutaneous endometriosis or umbilical endometriosis is a rare localization of extragenital endometriosis. It was first described by Villar in 1886.
Endometriosis ( term coined by Sampson ) is the presence of endometrial glands and stroma outside the uterine cavity and musculature and is a very common gynecological condition. The Common sites of occurrence of endometriosis are pelvic organs especially ovaries , uterosacral ligaments and pouch of
average incidence is 7 to 10% in the reproductive age. Patients
usually present with dysmenorrhea ,
menorrhagia , pelvic pain and infertility. Primary
cutaneous endometriosis or umbilical endometriosis is a rare localization of
extragenital endometriosis .It was first described by Villar in 1886.
A 38 year old parous lady presented to the gynecology outpatient with abdominal pain and severe dysmenorrhea for a duration of nine months. She also had menorrhagia for the last six months. The lady also described a slow progressive, tender bluish umbilical swelling that had been growing over ten years. She complained that serosanguinous discharge from the nodule coincident with her menstrual period and tenderness around the nodule increased during this time. She attained menarche at 12 years and had previous regular menstrual cycles, with spasmodic dysmenorrhea, which was relieved after consuming analgesics and rest. Her obstetric, past medical and surgical history was unremarkable.
On examination it was seen that she had 2x2 cm nodule at the umbilical ring, which had a blackish blue hue and was firm, tender and nonreducible. Surface of the nodule was smooth and there was no cough impulse. The lesion appeared to be attached to the anterior abdominal wall. Her uterus was enlarged to the size of a 24 week gravid uterus and was irregular and firm.
Figure 1. Umbilical nodule.
Figure 2. Magnified view of umbilical nodule.
On further investigation an ultrasound revealed an echogenic subcutaneous nodule associated with multiple uterine fibroids intrabdominally. A fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of the lesion was done and the cytology smears revealed the smears to be cellular and with clusters and sheets of hyperchromatic cells. The background of the smear showed plenty of hemosiderin laden macrophages. This finding of hemosiderin laden macrophages was highly suggestive of endometriosis.
Figure 3 FNAC: Sheets of hyperchromatic cells & hemosiderin laden macrophages.
Surgical removal of the lesion, umbilical reconstruction and a total abdominal hysterectomy with a bilateral salphingo oophorectomy were done. Post operative course of the patient was uneventful.
When a Histopatholgical examination of the excised nodule was done, it showed fragmented endometrial glands with sub epithelial stroma. It confirmed the diagnosis of umbilical endometriosis. The histopathology of the specimen of the uterus showed adenomyosis
Figure 4 Fragmented endometrial glands with subepithelial stroma. (4XH&E)
Figure 5. Cystic dilated endometrial glands containing red blood cells.
Figure 6. Endometrial glands lined by columnar cells.
Umbilical endometriosis is endometriosis involving the subcutaneous tissue of the umbilicus. The actual incidence of umbilical endometriosis is 0.5-1%. Endometriosis of the umbilicus is rare, atypical and presents with diagnostic difficulties. It occurs frequently with suspicions of malignancy. There are two theories that suggest the etiopathogenesis of umbilical endometriosis.
- Metaplasia theory: it arises from embryonic celomic mesothelium, which due to some stimuli differentiates into endometrial tissue.
- Metastasis theory: it occurs due to vascular and lymphatic spread of endometrial fragments and ectopic implantation.
The following protocol is suggested in differential diagnosis of an umbilical nodule.
- If present with discharge consider a patent urachus, endometriosis of umbilicus and patent vitellointestinal duct.
- If there is no discharge at umbilicus and no signs of infection are present consider granuloma, umbilical inclusion cyst, endometriosis or adenoma.
- If there is no discharge but signs of infection are present, consider dermatitis, omphalitis or pilonidal sinus.
Umbilical endometriosis is a rare surgical entity. It should be considered in the differential diagnosis for an umbilical lesion and also in the diagnosis for cyclical pain, emanating in the vicinity of the umbilicus. The key to diagnosis is the temporal association of bleeding from the umbilical lesion, that is related to the menstrual period.
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Joylene DAlmeida J, Backthan L, Rao SV. Villar’s Umbilical Nodule: A Rare Case Of Umbilical Endometriosis. JPGO 2015. Volume 2 No. 8. Available from: http://www.jpgo.org/2015/08/villars-umbilical-nodule-rare-case-of.html